By Alun Thomas
Practising engineers on website, within the layout workplace or in buyer corporations will locate this booklet a very good creation to the layout and building of sprayed concrete covered (SCL) tunnels. The advanced behaviour of the early age behaviour of the sprayed concrete calls for cautious administration. This booklet covers all points of SCL tunnelling – from the parts of sprayed concrete to precise layout and administration in the course of building. even supposing there's a shut interdependence among the entire aspects of sprayed concrete, few engineers have the precise breadth of expertise and services, and this urgently has to be transferred to the broader engineering community.
Disseminating crucial details for tunnelling engineers, Sprayed Concrete covered Tunnels is vital analyzing for all excited about or learning the process.
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Additional info for Sprayed Concrete Lined Tunnels (Applied Geotechnics)
Polypropylene ﬁbres were also found to enhance strength but they also increase the water demand so that there is little overall beneﬁt (Brite Euram 1998). OTHER ADDITIVES AND ADMIXTURES Individually, plasticisers, stabilisers and other additives may not have a detrimental impact on the mechanical properties of sprayed concrete but one must always be aware that combinations of accelerators and additives may produce unfavourable results, such as signiﬁcantly reduced strengths (Brite Euram 1998). Compatibility testing before work begins on site is used to identify such unfavourable combinations.
Compressive strengths have been found to be 10 to 25% higher in the plane perpendicular to the direction of spraying (Cornejo-Malm 1995, Huber 1991, Fischnaller 1992). However, others have reported no variation in strength with direction of testing (Purrer 1990, Brite Euram 1998). At ﬁrst sight, higher strengths perpendicular to the direction of spraying may seem paradoxical since the spraying jet is the sole means of compaction for sprayed concrete. This ‘softer response’ may be due to compaction at the less dense interfaces between layers of sprayed concrete (Aldrian 1991).
Pioneered in the mining industry these ﬁbres have similar dimensions to steel ﬁbres but they are lighter, softer and less strong. Given the difference in density, a dosage of 5 to 10 kg/m3 is equivalent to 30 to 40 kg/m3 of steel ﬁbres (Melbye 2005). Experiments have also been conducted recently with textile glass ﬁbre meshes made from alkali resistant glass. At present these meshes can only be used in gunite with a maximum size of aggregate of less than 2 mm due to the close spacing of the threads in the mesh (Schorn 2004).