By J. Pontén (auth.)
A. Definitions of Transformation in vitro whilst general tissues or organs are explanted to stipulations favoring the expansion of cells as person devices ("cell culture"), the unique mobilephone inhabitants undergoes a wide number of differences. just a minority of the cells will thrive and multiply and inside a slightly brief time period, the advanced composition of the unique explant is changed through a miles simplified certainly one of just a couple of recogniz ably diverse mobilephone forms. With so much organs fibroblast-like cells live on longest and outgrow different kinds. this can be then a reliable scenario for plenty of gener ations. This treatise won't talk about no matter if this simplification and stabilization represents number of yes pre-existing phone kinds or a amendment of cells into just a couple of recognizably diversified different types; for a superb assessment see HARRIS. (1964). desk 1. Terminology hired to explain differences in vitro kind of transformation crucial beneficial properties abnormal development loss of touch inhibition of telephone membrane stream ("ruffled membranes") among juxtaposed cells Unrestrained progress poor inhibition of the phone cycle (mitosis) in a crowded tradition countless development potential of cells to suffer an unlimited variety of di visions (formation of verified phone strains) Cells may possibly go away from this commonplace habit in several methods concerning for example mobile morphology, immunology, chromosomes or metabolism. Such adjustments have, occasionally really vaguely, been known as "transformations". this can be unprecise and the time period "transformation" will the following be used completely to point disturbances in telephone development on the topic of neoplasia.
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Extra info for Spontaneous and Virus Induced Transformation in Cell Culture
It should not be confused with the induction of a blast-like appearance and mitosis in peripheral blood lymphocytes after stimulation by phytohemagglutinin as first described by NOWELL (1960). There is no evidence that Nowell's phenomenon involves a transformation in the sense of this review. Lymphoblastoid transformation was originally observed in a small proportion of bone marrow cultures from children mainly suffering from acute leukemia (BENYESH-MELNICK, FERNBACH, and LEWIS, 1963) and in cultures of tumor tissue from a patient with Burkitt's lymphoma (EpSTEIN and BARR, 1965).
Lymphatic Tissue and Bone Marrow A long and intimate cell-cell contact seems to be a prerequisite for a high rate of lymphoblastoid transformation. This has best been accomplished by a modified Trowell organ type of culture (TROWELL, 1954, 1959; JENSEN, GWATKIN, and BIGGERS, 1964) where the original explant is preserved intact for several months on top of a grid placed in a Petri dish (Fig. 5). , KOROL, DITTMAR, and MEDREK, 1967). The process can be divided into three stages: a) A primary lymphoid cell production phase lasting 2-5 weeks during which decreasing numbers of small lymphocytes and larger lymphoid elements are released into the medium.
The hypothesis fails to explain why the latently malignant cells become producers of immunoglobulin in vitro. Malignant lymphomas do, with rare exceptions, not produce any myeloma-like proteins in vivo, in sharp contrast to the lines obtained in vitro, which almost always have synthesized mono- or oligoclonal globulins. IV. Virus Induced Transformation in Cell Culture The interaction between a tumor virus and its target cell can be studied with a precision and refinement impossible in vivo and experimental viral carcinogenesis derives much of its basic knowledge from studies in vitro.