By N. van Breemen (auth.), Prof. Dr. B. Ulrich, Prof. Dr. M. E. Sumner (eds.)
Processes of acidification or alkalization of soils are taken care of, taking the qualitative adjustments in soil chemistry under consideration. Following a theoretical heritage of atmosphere proton budgets, the applying for assessing exterior and inner acid so much are established. The chemistry of natural subject and the oxides of aluminum, iron, and manganese are handled within the context of being resources and sinks for acid rather a lot in soils. exact cognizance is payed to the overview of solubility and response kinetics of aluminous minerals. The formation of poisonous parts in soil answer due to the solubilization of inorganic oxides in addition to features of adjustments within the nutrient prestige of soils, adjustments of fertility and procedures resulting in a move of acidity from soils to floor are discussed.
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Extra info for Soil Acidity
Various indirect methods, based on the flux balance of the plant canopy, have been proposed by Mayer and Ulrich (1974), Ulrich et al. (1979), and Ulrich (1983b). For difficultly soluble heavy metals, the assessment of deposition rates has to be based on the flux balance of the whole plant cover (Mayer 1981; Schultz 1987). Based on this approach, data have been presented for several forest ecosystems in northwest Germany for the ions H, Na, K, Mg, Ca, Mn, AI, Fe, Cl, S04, P0 4, NH 4, N0 3 , N org , and the trace elements Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, Cr, Co, Ni, As, Se, Te, Bi, Ag, Mo, Be, Sb, V, Hg.
18 CassensSasse (1987) Matzner (1988, 1989) Ellenberg et al. 22 Buttner et al. 6 1984/86 8 s:g. " C 0 """ An Ecosystem Approach to Soil Acidification 41 H+ /OH- balance ofthe ecosystem. If, for example, nitric acid (HN0 3 ) has been produced by nitrification and is denitrified, HN0 3 is consumed and not only NO;; the acidification due to nitrification is counteracted by denitrification and the loss of gaseous N compounds. The example shows that the loss of gaseous compounds can cause a considerable change in the acid/base status of the compartment "soil solution", however.
The assimilation of CO 2 due to photosynthesis is coupled with the flow of water and O2 and creates a flow of ions into primary producers. The release of CO 2 by respiration is again coupled to the turnover of water and outflows of CO 2 and ions from decomposers. Only in anisotropic systems, in which there is no spatial symmetry, are all modes of coupling possible (Katchalski and Curran 1965, p. 89); ecosystems fulfill this condition. All relations between forces and flows in open systems in steady state are directed towards a decrease in free energy; this applies to the flows connecting organisms with their environment (water films, soil solution, and atmosphere).