By Gregory Moore
This examine explores the German philosopher's reaction to the highbrow debates sparked via the e-book of Charles Darwin's foundation of Species. through interpreting the abundance of organic metaphors in Nietzsche's writings, Gregory Moore questions his contemporary recognition as an eminently subversive and publish smooth philosopher. The publication analyzes key issues of Nietzsche's thought--his critique of morality, his philosophy of artwork and the Übermensch--in the sunshine of the idea of evolution, the nineteenth-century feel of decadence and the increase of anti-Semitism.
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For while higher forms evolve, they do not – and cannot – maintain or perpetuate themselves; only the ‘type’ is heritable. What is more, their existence is more precarious than that of the herd. Like the genius or the ‘Caesar’ in human evolution, they represent a brief, ephemeral flowering; as a result, the ‘level of the species is not raised’ (VIII 3, 14). On the other hand, Nietzsche envisages slow, regular progress towards morphological stability in the herd, that is, in the greater mass of weaker, yet more fecund and durable organisms.
Emanuel R´adl, The History of Biological Theories (London: Humphrey Milford, 1930), p. 42; Alfred Kelly, The Descent of Darwin. The Popularization of Darwinism in Germany, 1860–1914 (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1981), p. 5. ), The Comparative Reception of Darwinism (Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 1974), pp. ), The Darwinian Heritage (Princeton University Press, 1985), pp. 638–729. Oswei Temkin, ‘The Idea of Descent in Post-Romantic German Biology: 1848–1858’, in Bentley Glass, Owsei Temkin and William L.
With the abolition of metaphysical essences from biology and the discovery of microscopic individual cells as the elementary building blocks of animal and vegetal life, biological individuality was redefined. ” ’19 However, it was the pioneering work of the cytologist and pathologist Rudolf Virchow, which, as Lange points out, really opened the way to analysing organisms as multicellular composites. Virchow, who viewed the cell as the fundamental unit of life, described aggregates of individual cells as autonomous ‘citizens’ forming a ‘cell state’ (Zellenstaat).