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By Gérard Y. Vichniac (auth.), E. Bienenstock, F. Fogelman Soulié, G. Weisbuch (eds.)

The NATO workshop on Disordered structures and organic association was once attended, in march 1985, by means of sixty five scientists representing a wide number of fields: arithmetic, laptop technology, Physics and Biology. It was once the aim of this interdisciplinary workshop to make clear the conceptual connections current among fields of analysis it seems that as various as: automata thought, combinatorial optimization, spin glasses and modeling of organic structures, them all keen on the worldwide association of advanced platforms, in the community interconnected. universal to many contributions to this quantity is the underlying analogy among organic structures and spin glasses: they percentage an identical houses of balance and variety. this is often the case for example of fundamental sequences of biopo Iymers I ike proteins and nucleic acids regarded as the results of mutation-selection methods [P. W. Anderson, 1983] or of evolving organic species [G. Weisbuch, 1984]. probably the most outstanding features of our cognitive equipment, focused on studying and recognttlon [J. Hopfield, 19821, can be defined by way of balance and variety in an appropriate configuration area. those interpretations and preoccupations merge with these of theoretical biologists like S. Kauffman [1969] (genetic networks) and of mathematicians of automata conception: the dynamics of networks of automata will be interpreted when it comes to association of a procedure in a number of attainable attractors. the current creation outlInes the relationships among the contributions provided on the workshop and in brief discusses each one paper in its specific medical context.

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Brewer and E. L. Hahn, Scientific American 251:6 (1984) 50-57. [50] K. Huang, Statistical Mechanics (Wiley, 1963). [51] P. C. W. Davies, The Physics of Time Asymmetry (University of California Press, 1977). [52] J. Hardy, O. de Pazzis, and Y. Pomeau, Phys. Rev. A 13 (1976) 1949-1961. [53] T. Toffoli, Physica 10D (1984) 117-127; reprinted in [2]. [54] Y. Pomeau, J. Phys. A 17 (1984) L415-L418. [55] See the papers of Mezard, Solla et al. and Virasoro, this volume; and M. Mezard, G. Parisi, N. Sourlas, G.

B30 (1984) 5150-5155. [34] P. Grassberger, Physica IOD (1984) 52-58; reprinted in [2]. [35] S. Kirkpatrick, C. D. Gelatt Jr. and M. P. Vecchi, Science 220 (1983) 671-680; s. Kirkpatrick and G. Toulouse, J. Physique, in press. [36] S. Wolfram, Physica IOD (1984) 1-35; reprinted in [2]. [37] N. H. Packard and S. Wolfram, J. Stat. Phys. 38 (1985) 901-946. [38] G. Y. Vichniac, SIAM J. Alg. Disc. Meth. 5 (1984) 596-602. [39] N. H. Margolus, private communication. [40] F. Fogelman-Soulie, this volume; and Contribution reseaux, These, Grenoble (1985).

Most of its trajectory will be within the "grey" region of Figure 4. 16 A cryptologist might view the initial configuration as a plaintext that becomes encrypted by evolution, resulting in a ciphertext. A physicist might think of Gibbs's example of stirring of a drop of ink in a glass of water. After stirring, the mixture becomes uniformily grey. The original drop cannot be recovered; the process is lor all practical purposes irreversible. ) But in principle one should be able to "unstir" the mixture by exactly reversing the momenta of all the molecules involved-this is Loschmidt's paradox[51].

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