By Steven D. Wexner, Neil Stollman
This primary connection with comprehensively tackle either the scientific and surgical administration of illnesses affecting the colon, this resource spans the big range of colorectal problems together with rectal prolapse, irritable bowel syndrome, benign and malignant colonic tumors, fissures and ulcers, and Crohn's colitis, between different illnesses. With chapters through global leaders within the box, this consultant analyzes diagnostic and imaging options for sickness assessment and administration together with advances in colonoscopy, radiology, and surgical procedure.
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Extra info for Diseases of the Colon (Gastroenterology and Hepatology)
Dis Colon Rectum 1987; 30:970–982. 5. Klosterhalfen B, Vogel P, Rixen H, Mitterman C. Topography of the inferior rectal artery. A possible cause of chronic, primary anal fissure. Dis Colon Rectum 1989; 32:43–52. 6. Stoss F. Investigations of the muscular architecture of the rectosigmoid junction in humans. Dis Colon Rectum 1990; 33:378–383. 7. Levi AC, Borghi F, Garavoglia M. Development of the anal canal muscles. Dis Colon Rectum 1991; 34:262–266. 8. Lunniss PJ, Phillips RKS. Anatomy and function of the anal longitudinal muscle.
Because the junction between the two muscles is indistinct, and they have similar innervation (pudendal nerve), the PR has been regarded, by some authors, as a part of the EAS and not of the levator ani complex (11,64). Anatomical and phylogenetic studies suggest that the PR is either a part of the levator ani (13) or of the EAS (50,59). Based on microscopic examinations in human embryos, Levi et al. (7) observed that the PR has a common primordium with the ileo- and pubococcygeus muscles; the PR is, in different stages of development, never connected with the EAS.
Lancet 1981; 1:16–17. 71. Russell KP. Anatomy of the pelvic floor, rectum and anal canal. In: Smith LE, eds. Practical Guide to Anorectal Testing. New York: Ygaku-Shoin Medical Publishers, Inc, 1991:744–747. 72. Garavoglia M, Borghi F, Levi AC. Arrangement of the anal striated musculature. Dis Colon Rectum 1993; 36:10–15. 73. Courtney H. Posterior subsphincteric space. Its relation to posterior horseshoe fistula. Surg Gynecol Obstet 1949; 89:222–226. 74. Ayoub SF. Arterial supply of the human rectum.