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This typical addresses the layout and building of frost-protected shallow foundations in components topic to seasonal flooring freezing. origin insulation necessities to guard heated and unheated structures from frost heave are provided in easy-to-follow steps just about layout tables, weather maps, and different priceless information to provide an entire frost-protection layout. some great benefits of this know-how contain: superior building potency over traditional practices, elevated strength potency, minimized website disturbance, and greater frost safeguard. A remark is integrated to supplied history details and demanding technical insights

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Additional resources for Design and construction of frost-protected shallow foundations

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2 of this commentary. Availability of soil water. When sufficient soil moisture is available in a frost-susceptible soil, water may be transported to the frost front from underlying moist, unfrozen soil by capillary action. This phenomenon causes the development of ice layers or ice lenses in the soil at the location of the frost front. These lenses may range in thickness from approximately 1 mm 30 in soils that are not frost-susceptible to as much as 150 mm in highly susceptible soil types (Rathmayer, 1994).

Geothermal heat from the underlying ground also helps raise the ground temperature underneath the building and the frost depth around the building. Heat loss through any building foundation also prevents damage from adfreezing or lateral loads from moist, frozen ground adjacent to foundations. The design provisions in the Standard are based on the following worst-case conditions to ensure adequate frost protection: • use of a 100-year mean return period air-freezing index • a highly frost-susceptible soil (silt) with relatively high thermal conductivity and with sufficient mois- SEI/ASCE 32-01 ture in the soil to promote frost heave, but not so much as to resist the penetration of the frost line through latent heat effects • no insulating ground cover from snow, turf, and so on • minimum indoor temperature conditions for “heated” and “semi-heated” building thermal classifications based on intended use and occupancy of the building • no heat input to the ground from buildings classified as “unheated” Several of these conditions would need to be violated simultaneously for frost heave to occur on a site that actually had frost-susceptible soils of a sufficiently high moisture content.

Section 6, Design Method for Heated Buildings limits it to R-28. If higher levels of insulation are used, the building must be designed as unheated. A monthly average indoor temperature is used due to the lag effect associated with ground temperatures at the footing depth. The appropriate thermal classification should be selected based on the conditions that follow. Homes, businesses, and other buildings with year-round human occupancy are assumed to have an average monthly indoor air temperature of more than 63°F (17°C) and should be constructed as heated buildings.

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