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By Ben Yudkin

Textbooks are designed to educate, clarify and make complicated details simply understood and assimilated. study papers do the reader no such favours. with the ability to comprehend and use fundamental examine is an important device in any clinical occupation. This ebook teaches those useful abilities easily and obviously, saving hours in the end. serious interpreting explains find out how to:  approach each paper methodically  spot paintings aimed to help a puppy conception  gain self belief in wondering what you learn  be alert to bias  use abstracts intelligently  identify suspect experimental equipment  assess quantitative method  interpret effects with self assurance  draw inferences from released paintings. utilizing extracts from released Papers in concentration, this booklet imparts useful information to scholars and researchers from any biomedical or organic self-discipline. The textual content is definitely learn and understood and using key issues, summaries and reference reinforces sturdy strategy.

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Extra resources for Critical Reading: Making Sense of Papers in Life Sciences and Medicine (Routledge Study Guides)

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Steward, O. and Tessier-Lavigne, M. (2003) ‘Lack of enhanced spinal regeneration in Nogo-deficient mice’, Neuron 38: 213–24. Unlike the other two groups, these scientists found no effect of mutating nogo genes on either the regrowth of injured neurons in vivo or the locomotor abilities of injured mice: There was no indication of a greater degree of regeneration or sprouting in the Nogo-A/B mutant animals . . there was no statistically significant difference between the mutants and wild-type animals in the degree of functional recovery .

The way in which gene expression is regulated is a central question in biology. Development proceeds by a series of decisions about switching genes on and off. The genomes of our close relatives, the great apes, are so similar to ours that many of the differences between the species are thought to reflect differences in gene expression rather than differences in gene sequences themselves. Cancer ultimately results from aberrant gene expression. One factor influencing gene expression is the structure of chromatin, the DNA/protein complex of which chromosomes are made.

Not only is omitting ifs and buts simple, it also increases the apparent impact of a paper, which is useful for authors. If a result appears too tentative, journals may be reluctant to publish it. Scientists as authors 35 An extreme example of this kind of problem can be found in a pair of 1978 papers concerning an enzyme whose level in the blood is lower in schizophrenics than in people without schizophrenia. The research was important because it was relevant to attempts to diagnose schizophrenia accurately and early.

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