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By Tilly, G. P.; Wallsgrove, Jon; Frost, Alan

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1250– 1500 Fortifications and chapels, for example Bradford­on­Avon dating from the thirteenth century. 1345– 1900 Italian Renaissance introduced the segmental arch, starting with the Ponte Vecchio in Florence of 1345, with a span:pier ratio of 5:1.  Massive piers and abutments, the thickness of which is often between a quarter and one fifth of the clear span traditionally resist the outward thrust, for example Grosvenor Bridge, Chester 1832.  Tudor four­centred arches with a small point at the crown were considered at the time less ‘barbarous’ than the semicircular and pointed arches, but the crown can look awkward and weak, especially if it opened up a little when the centring was struck.

17.  It was a nice touch to leave the pillars, as well as the foundations of the two piers in the water to create a ‘ruin’ in the appropriate spatial environment of parkland.  Maillart’s celebrated Salginatobel Bridge of 1929 was one of the first to achieve this and led the new movement.  It is not unduly challenging to incorporate them in new structures as they can be free­standing and need not be incompatible with a modern replacement bridge. 20.

Historic charges displayed on a separate notice contain such gems as: ‘Wheelchairs drawn by hand 2d (old pence): Wheelchairs drawn by donkey or pony 3d’.  The toll­house has three storeys, two being below the level of the bridge deck, and is now a domestic dwelling. Cleveland Bridge across the River Avon at Bath was constructed with no less than four toll­houses in the style of Doric temples with pedimental porticoes, see Fig.  The toll­houses were disused for many years before being refurbished and modernised as domestic dwellings in 2000.

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