By A. Mantovani, F. Maranghi (auth.), P. Nicolopoulou-Stamati, L. Hens, C.V. Howard (eds.)
In fresh years, expanding consciousness and assets were delivered to undergo at the courting among the surroundings and congenital ailments. those illnesses have been formerly considered quite often because of genetic explanations. although the significance of genes as elements in causation is permitted, environmental components appear to be implicated simply as strongly. This publication explores a few additional techniques that experience arisen from newer perceptions of environmental results and their attainable interactions with residing platforms. dialogue and presentation of outdated and novel principles is focused at constructing a extra holistic and united belief of the interplay among congenital illnesses and the environment.
Amongst the themes mentioned are:
-effects of prenatal publicity to poisonous chemicals
-intra-uterine publicity to medicines
-effects of endocrine disrupters
-environmental danger and intercourse ratio in newborns
-surveillance of environmental impact
-research and policy
This publication should be of curiosity to researchers in environmental technology and/or human ecology, wellbeing and fitness execs, NGOs, and the final public.
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Extra resources for Congenital Diseases and the Environment
In this respect, it is not possible to make a common unified outcome out of different, yet possibly linked, environmental factors. 2. Endocrine disrupters, inflammation and steroidogenesis Testicular physiology is a sensitive system, depending on various factors, such as the prenatal sexual differentiation. The correct levels of hormones, especially androgens, will lead to various important changes in the development of the male fetus, such as brain differentiation. The development of male external genital INTRODUCTION 11 organs, for instance, is represented by testicular descent.
J. Med. Genet. C. Semin. Med. Genet. 125, 4-11. Dolk, H. and Vrijheid, M. (2003) The impact of environmental pollution on congenital anomalies, Br. Med. Bull. 68, 25-45. , Armstrong, B. G. and Walls, P. H. (1998) Geographical variation in anophthalmia and microphthalmia in England, 1988-94, Br. Med. J. 317, 905-909. P. (1996) Cryptorchidism and delayed testicular descent in Florida black bears. J. Wildl. Dis. 32, 661-664. Dwernychuk, L. W. (2005) Dioxin hot spots in Vietnam, Chemosphere 60, 998-999.
189 Table 11. 195 Table 12. 210 Table 13. 212 Table 14. 214 Table 15. 237 Table 16. 249 Table 17. 309 Table 18. Specific mortality ratio for congenital abnormalities per 100,000 of population in Greece and in 8 selected countries. 327 Table 19. 328 xxxiii xxxiv LIST OF TABLES Table 20. 330 Table 21. Deaths due to congenital abnormalities per 100,000 of population (specific mortality ratio) per deceased’s permanent residence from 1981 to 1995.. 332 Table 22. Discharged patients with congenital abnormalities per 100,000 of population per place of permanent residence from 1981 to 1995.