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Extra resources for Communicable Disease Epidemiology and Control: A Global Perspective, 2nd Edition

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10). They are especially useful in determining control strategy, which is the subject of the next few chapters. 1 Control Principles Control can be directed either at the agent, the route of transmission, the host or the environment. Sometimes it is necessary to use several control strategies. The general methods of control are summarized in Fig. 1. 1 The agent Destruction of the agent can be by specific treatment, using drugs that kill the agent in vivo, or if it is outside the body, by the use of antiseptics, sterilization, incineration or radiation.

Live attenuated organisms give the body an actual infection, inducing antibody production. This is the best kind of vaccine as it generates maximal response from a single dose and as a consequence, immunity is long-lasting. The danger with live attenuated vaccines is that the organisms could revert to the virulent strain. Examples are measles and oral polio, which are attenuated virus infections, and BCG, which is an attenuated bacterium. 2. Killed organisms are used when it is not possible to produce a live attenuated strain.

G. gastroenteritis), an epidemic occurs when the usual rate of the disease is substantially exceeded. Criteria can be set so that when the number of cases exceeds this level the epidemic threshold is crossed. The epidemic threshold can either be the upper limit of cases expected at that particular time, an excess mortality, or a combination of both the number of cases and the mortality. Characteristics of an epidemic (Fig. 1) are as follows: 1. Latent period, the time interval from initial infection until start of infectiousness.

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