By Östen Dahl, Maria Koptjevskaja-Tamm
The realm round the Baltic Sea has for millennia been a meeting-place for individuals of alternative origins. one of the circum-Baltic languages, we discover 3 significant branches of Indo-European — Baltic, Germanic, and Slavic, the Baltic-Finnic languages from the Uralic phylum and a number of other others. The circum-Baltic sector is a perfect position to review areal and phone phenomena in languages. the current set of 2 volumes examine the circum-Baltic languages from a typological, areal and ancient standpoint, attempting to relate the problematic styles of similarities and dissimilarities to the societal history. In quantity II, chosen phenomena within the grammars of the circum-Baltic languages are studied in a cross-linguistic point of view.
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Additional info for Circum-Baltic Languages: Typology and Contact, Volume 2: Grammar and Typology
Though this is an independent development in Lithuanian, the tendency underlying it should probably also be considered in the context of areal links with Finnic. The Impersonals and passives in Baltic and Finnic 379 inferential or admirative marking connected with participial constructions in general cannot be dissociated from the system of the indirect mood (modus relativus) so well developed in Baltic, and generally associated with similar phenomena in some Finnic dialects (Estonian, Livonian), cf.
2 An apparent exception is the retention of the genitive of negation in the passive, attested in the dialects (Endzelı¯ns 1951: 563). Note that the participle is in the masculine singular form, as in the impersonal passive (this is the regular outcome of gender neutralization, as neuter forms, used in similar circumstances in Slavic and Lithuanian, do not exist in Latvian). ’ 370 Axel Holvoet Such constructions are rare, as the genitive of negation with transitive verbs is becoming extinct in Latvian.
The fact that it must always be put immediately before the participle indicates that it has basically retained the status of an adnominal genitive, comparable with the genitive accompanying the 3rd inﬁnitive in Finnish. And, if this is so, then constructions like (20) should properly be regarded as copular constructions rather than as passives. In order to render their structure correctly, one would have to compare them to English constructions with incorporated agents such as man-made ﬁbres and these ﬁbres are man-made.