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By R. J. Prince (auth.), R. M. Mortier, S. T. Orszulik (eds.)

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A variant of solvent de-waxing, urea de-waxing, is effective for making low pour point base oils from lower boiling lube feedstocks. e. wax). The urea-wax adduct is removed by filtration to leave a very low pour point oil. Urea and solvent are recovered and recycled. 8 Finishing Despite the intensive series of process steps carried out so far, trace impurities may still be present in the base oil and a finishing step is needed to correct problems such as: • • poor colour poor oxidation or thermal stability 24 CHEMISTRY AND TECHNOLOGY OF LUBRICANTS • • poor demulsification properties poor electrical insulating properties These undesirable components tend to be nitrogen-, oxygen- or, to a lesser extent, sulphur-containing molecules.

Extraction temperature. Solvent power increases with temperature, but selectivity decreases until feed and solvent become miscible. Clearly this extreme of complete miscibility must not be allowed to happen. The use of temperature gradients in extraction towers aids selectivity. Solvent/oil contacting. The solvent and oil streams must be brought into contact, mixed efficiently and then separated into the extract and raffinate phases. The principal methods used are: • • • • Multi-stage mixing vessels, arranged in series so that flows of solvent and oil run in counter-current fashion.

1. 2 summarises the physical properties of these esters. 3 Manufacture ofesters The manufacturing process of esters consists of three distinct processes: esterification, filtration and distillation. The fundamental reaction process is that of acid + alcohol ---+ ester + water. This reaction is reversible, but is driven to completion by the use of excess alcohol and removal of water as it forms. g. toluene, to aid water removal is optional. The acid and alcohol can be reacted thermally, usually in the presence of a catalyst in an esterification reactor.

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