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By A. K. Haghi

Chemical engineering is the department of engineering that offers with the appliance of actual technological know-how, and existence sciences with arithmetic, to the method of changing uncooked fabrics or chemical substances into extra important or priceless types. This e-book stories learn regarding chemical undefined, chemical engineering and different attached parts.

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Pretreatment of rice husk can remove lignin, hemicellulose, reduce cellulose crystallinity and increase the porosity or 48 S. M. Mirabdolazimi, A. Mohammad-Khah, R. Ansari et al. surface area. In general, chemically modified or treated rice husk exhibited higher adsorption capacities on heavy metal ions that unmodified rice husk. When rice husk is treated with hydrochloric acid, adsorption sites on the surface of rice husk will be protonated, leaving the heavy metal ions in the aqueous phase rather than being adsorbed on the adsorbent surface [6].

Textile materials can be treated with different functional finishes, such as water and oil repellent, durable press, soil-release, flame retardant, antistatic, and antimicrobial [2,3]. Water repellent finishing on fabrics is mostly imparted by the incorporation of low surface energy compounds, accompanied by the increase of the contact angle of liquids on its surface. The most recent approaches to improverepellency are based on the use of nanoparticles, such ashighly branched 3D surface functional macromolecules called dendrimers, whose effect mechanism depends on being in a position to build-up crystal structures in nano-range, which produce wash-permanent, waterrepellent and highly abrasion resistant effects.

4. 03 g/cm3) provided by Rudolf Chemie (Turkey and Italy) were used as finishing agents and coded as DWR, DWOR and FWOR respectively (Table 2). Table 2. 5. 56 g dm-3). Chemicals were obtained from Sigma-Aldrich, in analytical grade. 6. Dyeing Untreated fabrics were dyed using method depicted in Figure 2, according to selected dyes. Reactive dyeing was carried out using a liquor ratio of 10:1. Samples were then washed, rinsed and neutralized at proper temperature levels, to be finally left to dry under laboratory conditions.

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