By A. C. M. Bourg (auth.), Dr. Wim Salomons, Professor Dr. Ulrich Förstner (eds.)
Dredged fabric and Mine Tailings are of an identical factor when they are deposited on land: they have to be safe-guarded, wash-out has to be avoided, and so they has to be safe by means of a plantcover. This finished treatise covers either vital elements in their administration: In Chemistry and Biology of reliable Waste the rules and review are scientifically studied and mentioned, whereas Environmental Management of stable Waste turns to the sensible functions, equivalent to prediction, recovery and administration. formerly, dredged fabric used to be a commodity, it can be bought as soil, e.g. to gardeners. meanwhile, dredged fabric from the North Sea (e.g. the Rotterdam or Amsterdam harbor) has to be handled as poisonous waste. Many environmentalists, managers and corporations have no idea the right way to resolve the inherent difficulties. This new paintings offers with the chemical, actual and organic rules; the organic and geochemical evaluation; the prediction of results and remedy; and eventually, with the recovery and revegetation. it truly is written by means of many major scientists within the numerous fields, and should turn out useful for scientists, managers and politicians who're thinking about the current environmental situation.
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Extra resources for Chemistry and Biology of Solid Waste: Dredged Material and Mine Tailings
1979; Manchee 1979; Ehrlich 1981; Lundgren and Malouf 1983; Karavaiko 1985; Ralph 1985). Iron, both in its divalent and trivalent state, plays a central role in sulfide mineral degradation. Attempts to demonstrate direct bacterial oxidation of these sulfides must necessarily exclude iron. This is extremely difficult to accomplish as most naturally occurring mineral sulfides are associated with various iron minerals. Our understanding of the detailed mechanisms of bacterial attack remains obscure.
Such complexity does not permit uniform modeling of sulfide mineral dissolution and bacterial oxidation of mine tailings. Nevertheless, significant progress has been made in our understanding of the fundamental chemical and biological processes associated with these materials. This must contribute to our attempts to industrially exploit the sizeable metal values contained within these low-grade deposits and to minimizt' the possibilities of pollution. 1 The Oxidation of Sulfide Minerals The dissolution of a large number of metal sulfides has been shown to be biologically assisted.
Tributsch and Bennett (198Ia,b) have, therefore, postulated that protons are important in chemically breaking surface bonds, including shifting electron levels of sulfides with large energy gaps into the energy range of the forbidden energy gap, where they can participate in electron transfer reactions. The proton catalyzed reaction produces weakly bonded "SHLl- groups which are in turn removed from the sulfide surface through complex formation with an unidentified molecular carrier used by the bacterium (Tributsch and Bennett 1981a,b).