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By Mohammed S. Razzaque, Takashi Taguchi

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Additional resources for Cellular Stress Responses In Renal Diseases (Contributions to Nephrology)

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Long-Term Adaptation The adverse effects provoked by elevated intracellular concentrations of inorganic electrolytes make it plausible that renal medullary cells avoid prolonged periods of high intracellular ionic strength: This is achieved by accumulation of small organic osmoeffectors (‘organic osmolytes’) that are metabolically neutral and, even at high concentrations, do not perturb cell function. These organic osmolytes include the trimethylamines betaine and glycerophosphorylcholine (GPC), the polyols myo-inositol and sorbitol and, to a lesser extent, free amino acids.

Am J Physiol 1989;257:F602–F607. Yancey PH: Osmotic effectors in kidneys of xeric and mesic rodents: Corticomedullary distributions and changes with water availability. J Comp Physiol 1988;158:369–380. Bauernschmitt HG, Kinne RKH: Metabolism of the ‘organic osmolyte’ glycerophosphorylcholine in isolated rat inner medullary collecting duct cells. I. Pathways for synthesis and degradation. Biochim Biophys Acta 1993;1148:331–341. Zablocki K, Miller SPF, Garcia-Perez A, Burg MB: Accumulation of glycerophosphocholine (GPC) by renal cells: Osmotic regulation of GPC: choline phosphodiesterase.

Expression of HSP27 in normal kidney epithelium and RCCs of different subtypes. Panel a and IHC staining b: In RCCs of the clear cell subtype only 5% and 19% display strong or intermediate positive staining for HSP27, respectively, whereas 43% of the tumors stain only weak positive and 33% are negative for this antigen. IHC staining c: In contrast, normal kidney tissue displays strong positive staining for HSP27 in the epithelium of the collecting duct system, urothelial cells and smooth muscle cells of blood vessels.

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