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By Jakub Karpinski

The normal therapy of difficulties attached with the causal conditioning of phenomena has routinely been the area of philosophy, but if one examines the relationships happening within the numerous fields, the learn of such conditionings belongs to the empirical sciences. Sociology isn't any exception in that admire. In that self-discipline we word a definite paradox. Many difficulties hooked up with the causal conditioning of phenomena were raised in sociology in particularly fresh instances, and that strategy marked its empirical or perhaps so-called empiricist development. That pattern, labelled positivist, turns out therefore to be in contradiction with a undeniable form of positivism. these authors who describe positivism frequently comprise the Humean culture in its family tree and, remembering Hume's feedback of the idea that of reason, talk about positivism as a few pattern that is susceptible to regard frivolously the examine of explanations and confines itself to the statements on co-occurrence of phenomena.

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Usually we also analyse some other relations among events. It is supposed that those processes are singled out in a natural manner in which causal links hold among those events which are parts of a given process. One can, however, examine processes defined formally (that is, all temporal orderings of events) and analyse problems which refer to the processes defined in this way. This is so because those problems also refer to a narrower class of problems (temporal orderings of causally connected events) which are analysed in the various disciplines.

4 It seems more natural to assume the action of external factors upon those factors which in the adopted schema have been directly taken into account. ). It is usually assumed that the correlations between any two such variables 48 CHAPTER lIT equal zero. That assumption is useful in determining the coefficients aij' Of course, that assumption can be verified by taking additional variables into consideration and thus expanding the initial model. But then one must assume something about the factors not taken into account in that richer model.

A somewhat stronger assumption states that the event D (alternative sufficient condition) is also the complement of AC to the necessary condition, so that (38) o(AC U D) --. o(B). By analogy to (28)-(30), the relationships (34)-(38) can be presented as inclusions or relationships among probabilities. Endeavours have been made to find what could be said about the probabilistic relationships between A and B in sets other than C. This meant the investigation of the probabilistic consequences of causal relationships interpreted non-probabilistically, and hence understood in a different manner than in the interpretation of Lazarsfeld and Suppes.

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