Download Cardiovascular Physiology: Mosby Physiology Monograph Series by Achilles J. Pappano PhD, Withrow Gil Wier PhD PDF

By Achilles J. Pappano PhD, Withrow Gil Wier PhD

Cardiovascular body structure provides a pretty good realizing of the way the cardiovascular method capabilities in either overall healthiness and disorder. perfect on your systems-based curriculum, this name within the Mosby body structure Monograph sequence explains how the most recent techniques observe to real-life scientific situations.
- Get transparent, actual, and up to the moment insurance of the body structure of the cardiovascular system.
- grasp the fabric simply with pursuits before everything of every bankruptcy self-study questions, summaries, and keywords and ideas and a multiple-choice assessment examination to aid prep for USMLEs.
- clutch the newest thoughts in vascular, molecular, and mobile biology as they follow to cardiovascular functionality, due to molecular commentaries in each one chapter.
- follow details to medical occasions due to medical commentaries and highlighted medical vignettes all through.

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Additional info for Cardiovascular Physiology: Mosby Physiology Monograph Series

Example text

Thus when Vm equals or is negative to EK, a small change in Vm induces a substantial change in K+ current; that is, gK1 is large. During phase 4, the Vm of a myocardial cell is slightly less negative than EK (see Figure 2-6). When the transmembrane potential of this isolated myocyte was clamped at levels less negative than −70 mV EXCITATION: THE CARDIAC ACTION POTENTIAL (see Figure 2-5), the chemical forces exceeded the electrostatic forces. Therefore the net K+ currents were outward (as denoted by the positive values along the corresponding section of the Y axis).

The inward Na+ current then depolarizes the cell very rapidly at that site. This portion of the fiber becomes part of the depolarized zone, and the border is displaced accordingly (to the right in Figure 2-17). The same process then begins at the new border. At any given point on the fiber, the greater the amplitude and the greater the rate of change of potential (dVm/dt) of the action potential during phase 0, the more rapid is the conduction down the fiber. The amplitude of the action potential equals the difference in potential between the fully depolarized and the fully polarized regions of the cell interior (see Figure 2-17).

Note that the current-voltage curve intersects the voltage axis at a Vm of about −80 mV. The absence of ionic current flow at the intersection indicates that the electrostatic forces must have been equal to the chemical (diffusional) forces (see Figure 2-4) at this potential. Thus in this isolated ventricular cell, the Nernst equilibrium potential (EK) for K+ was −80 mV; in a myocyte in the intact ventricle, EK is normally about −95 mV. When the membrane potential was clamped at levels negative to −80 mV in this isolated cell (see Figure 2-5), the electrostatic forces exceeded the chemical forces and an inward K+ current was induced (as denoted by the negative values of K+ current over this range of voltages).

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