By Anthony H. Aletras PhD (auth.), Raymond Y. Kwong MD, MPH (eds.)
Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging (CMR) is a swiftly evolving software for cardiovascular prognosis, and is changing into more and more very important in guiding cardiovascular interventions. Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging provides a cutting-edge compilation of specialist contributions to the sector, each one interpreting common and pathologic anatomy of the cardiovascular approach as assessed by way of magnetic resonance imaging. sensible strategies similar to myocardial perfusion imaging and evaluation of circulate pace are emphasised, in addition to the intriguing parts of artherosclerosis plaque imaging and unique magnetic resonance imaging. This state of the art quantity represents a multi-disciplinary method of the sector, with contributions from specialists in cardiology, radiology, physics, engineering, body structure and biochemistry, and gives new instructions in noninvasive imaging.
Contemporary and entire, Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging is a crucial source for cardiologists and radiologists striving to guide the way in which into the way forward for this crucial field.
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Extra info for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging
17. The gradient echo imaging pulse sequence diagram. the RF pulse is played out (Fig. 17, beige color). The gradient field along the z-axis causes spins at different planes parallel to the transverse plane to precess at different frequencies. Only the spins in a plane where the precessional Larmor frequency ν0 is equal to the frequency ν1 of our RF pulse will respond to the RF pulse and be brought on the transverse plane. In other words, only the spins in the plane that is on-resonance with the RF pulse (Eq.
The different locations y = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 exhibit 10°, 20°, 30°, 40°, 50°, and 60° phase accumulation per experiment respectively (orange “frequency” arrows). The sum of all locations is what we observe. The “frequency” arrows represent each location and can be extracted by the Fourier transformation. 30 Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging Fig. 28. (A) The two dimensional raw data matrix (k-space) holds in its rows the echoes from individual experiments executed with different phase encoding gradient steps.
Patient heart rate is also an important factor. In patients with slower heart rates, if the number of views per segment is kept low for high temporal resolution, acquisition times may extend beyond a reasonably achievable breath hold, as the same number of R–R intervals is still required to acquire enough data for an image. To keep total acquisition time low, the options in a bradycardic patient are either to increase the number of views obtained in each segment, at the cost of temporal resolution, or to decrease the number of views used to make up each image, decreasing spatial resolution or field of view.