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By Mark Pecker, John H. Laragh (auth.), Franz H. Messerli (eds.)

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Some classifications mix the two, but they should be separated. The four degrees of fundal atherosclerosis are: Grade 1: Grade 2: increased light reflex A-V nicking and right-angled crossings Franz H. ), CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE IN THE ELDERLY (Second Edition). Copyright© 1988, Martinus Nijhoff Publishing, Boston. All rights reserved. 37 38 3. , no red color at all. Hollenhorst plaques are flakes of cholesterol emboli seen as glinting spots, often seeming larger than the vessels in which they reside.

Again, no age relationship is present. (From Rodeheffer eta!. ) Thus, the relative importance of early and late diastolic filling phases is reversed with advancing age. At the cellular level, myocardial relaxation is effected by the removal of Ca + + from the contractile proteins by the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Sarcoplasmic reticulum isolated from senescent animal hearts accumulates Ca + + at a slower rate than that from young adult hearts (figure 2-11) [22]. The slower isometric relaxation observed 23 in the aged myocardium may therefore be related to this diminished rate of Ca + + accumulation by the sarcoplasmic reticulum.

Second, the individuals studied were not screened for the presence of occult coronary disease. Physical conditioning status also probably differed widely among the individuals. Furthermore, it is not valid to use cardiac output or stroke volume to measure intrinsic cardiac performance since differences in preload or afterload may modify these measurements. Echocardiography and radionuclide angiography In the last decade, more direct techniques for the noninvasive assessment of ventricular function have allowed further insights into the effects of aging on cardiac performance.

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