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By Robert Kneller

The cutting edge energy of the world's biggest economies, the us and Japan, are in line with very varied kinds of commercial and social association. For the us, enterprise businesses play a key function in technical and fiscal growth, whereas in Japan they've got just a very minor function. In Bridging Islands, Robert Kneller argues that with out shiny new excessive know-how businesses, eastern will decline inexorably. whilst, if the favorable but soft atmosphere in the USA is undermined, the US will face cave in of its cutting edge and monetary strength.Japan has performed a lot to enhance its setting for prime expertise ventures. It has a few promising new excessive expertise businesses and steadily expanding numbers of entrepreneurial scientists and bosses. yet they proceed to swim opposed to the present. One cause is that giant, proven businesses dominate excessive know-how fields and pursue an autarkic innovation strategy-relying on learn in-house, in affiliated businesses, or in universities. one more reason is that those related huge businesses nonetheless have preferential entry to college discoveries. hence, excessive know-how ventures are disadvantaged of niches during which to develop, expert body of workers, and their usual shopper base. within the box of university-industry kinfolk, steps can nonetheless be taken to enhance the surroundings for top know-how ventures-steps that may most likely additionally bring up the standard of college science.The American-Japanese innovation dichotomy represents a broader dichotomy among so-called liberal and regulated marketplace economies. the teachings from those international locations' reports are appropriate to many industrialized nations, and to constructing nations shaping their innovation structures. Bridging Islands is an in depth exam of the foremost function a gamble businesses in nationwide technical and fiscal good fortune, with very important implications for lecturers, researchers, experts, and policy-makers.

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Pravastatin (marketed by Bristol-Myers Squibb as Pravachol®), Sankyo’s follow-on to mevastatin, was approved in Japan in 1989 and by FDA in 1991 (Hara 2003: 131–49). As of 2005, statins remained the leading class of drugs to control high cholesterol. Shionogi’s recently FDA-approved rosuvastatin (marketed by Astra Zeneca as Crestor®), albeit a derivative drug, probably produces better cholesterol control than any other approved statin. Sankyo pioneered the first of the thiazolidinediones/glitazones, the current mainstay drug therapy for adult onset diabetes, with troglitazone (Resulin®).

Decisions to share information and promote development of expertise outside the company appear to be made cautiously and infrequently. 1 compares the sizes of the eight largest Japanese pharmaceutical companies, and Schering-Plough, which I used as the main comparator company. I wanted comparison companies that are research-oriented and whose business deals mostly with pharmaceuticals, rather than chemicals, diagnostics, etc. But most research-oriented ‘pure’ US and European pharmaceutical companies are much larger than any Japanese company.

E. clinical trial and marketing) capabilities and small or new companies focusing on drug discovery research. And less frequently, directly on universities. Eighteen out of forty-eight pipeline drugs in-licensed by the Japanese companies. Sixteen of the eighteen of these late in-licensed drugs were from large US or European companies. The other two were in-licensed from US biotechs. The major markets are Europe, Japan, and the USA. Thirteen in all for the eight Japanese companies, 27% of their total 48 inlicensed drugs and 10% of their total 133 pipeline drugs.

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