By Howard S Wheater, J Nigel B Bell, Adrian P Butler, B M Jackson, Ciciani Ciciani, Daniel Ashworth, Graeme Shaw
The protection review of a deep repository for nuclear waste poses not easy clinical and technical questions. the dangers from leakage of radionuclides from the repository, together with transfers to the biosphere and the nutrients chain needs to be assessed. This includes complicated and poorly understood interactions among groundwater, soils, vegetation and the ambience. a distinct, multidisciplinary experimental and modeling application at Imperial collage London has been funded by way of united kingdom NIREX to strengthen the technological know-how and to provide modeling instruments to interpret and generalize the experimental facts for protection review. This monograph brings jointly for the 1st time the amassed effects and adventure from nearly twenty years of analysis. the consequences have vital implications for the protection evaluate of nuclear waste world wide and supply new insights into the geochemical and organic controls at the upwards migration of radiochemicals within the near-surface atmosphere.
Read Online or Download Biosphere Implications of Deep Disposal of Nuclear Waste: The Upwards Migration of Radionuclides in Vegetated Soils (Environmental Science and Management) PDF
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Extra info for Biosphere Implications of Deep Disposal of Nuclear Waste: The Upwards Migration of Radionuclides in Vegetated Soils (Environmental Science and Management)
After sampling, either in solution samples or soil solids, each of these radionuclides was analysed by direct counting using an automated solid scintillation (NaI(Tl)) gamma-ray spectrometry system (Compugamma 1242, LKB Wallac). Appropriate standards were prepared from stock solutions of each radionuclide and these were used to convert counts per minute obtained in diﬀerent sample matrices into radioactivities in Bq. 36 Cl was the only beta-emitter used in soil column experiments. This was extracted from the soil with either deionised water or 1 M NaOH.
Dosing was carried out by preparing a large volume of single isotope stock solution, at a target concentration of 20 kBq l−1 , which was used to replace the deionised water in the reservoir bottles. The radionuclides were then free to migrate into the soil columns through the plastic bead substrate as evapotranspiration from the column surfaces created a gradient in water potential from the top to the bottom of the columns. This gradient drove the ﬂux of water described in the previous paragraph.
3) ch03 May 3, 2007 14:24 46 SPI-B441 Biosphere Implications of Deep Disposal of Nuclear Waste – 9 x 6in Biosphere Implications of Deep Disposal of Nuclear Waste where cRT i represents the concentration of the water ﬂowing between the common reservoir and buﬀer tank. Its speciﬁc value depends on the direction of the ﬂow, hence: if Qi ≥ 0 if Qi < 0 cRT i = cR cRT i = cT i The parameter λ is a decay constant (s−1 ) which accounts for the loss of radionuclide due to radioactive decay. 5) where MR0 is the total activity in the common reservoir at time t = 0 and MRd is the activity introduced/removed during the dosing/decanting of the common reservoir at time tRd .