Download BIOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL CONTROL KNAPWEED OF by Linda M Wilson PDF

By Linda M Wilson

Wooded area overall healthiness know-how company Team's examine on organic regulate of knapweed.

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It has not yet been established on knapweed species other than spotted in the United States. L. obtusus has been slow to build up significant populations in spotted knapweed in western Montana. L. obtusus is well established in Oregon, Idaho, Colorado, Washington and British Columbia. Larinus obtusus was introduced in 1993. 16 inch (4 mm) with a short, blunt snout (Fig. 32). Eggs are oval, yellowish, and covered with a black egg-cap. 3 inch (8 mm). 24 inch (5 mm) long pupae are found inside a cell in the seedhead.

Pupate and emerge through exit holes; move to overwintering site. Adults feed on foliage, mate, lay eggs on bracts or on end of a stem. Early Flower Buds Late Flower Buds Adults emerge and mate, lay eggs on bracts at base of young flower heads or on stem below flower head. Eggs hatch and larvae migrate to center of flower bud. Feed on developing florets and ovules. Flowering Eggs hatch and larvae enter opened flower head, feed on florets. Seed Formation Larvae mine in flower base (receptacle) and feed on seeds.

L. minutus and the two Urophora species were found to successfully cohabit in spotted knapweed seedheads. In addition to seed destruction by larvae, adults can do extensive damage by feeding on growing plants in the spring, which often results in the near total destruction of all growing diffuse knapweed plants in the vicinity of the original insect release. Diffuse knapweed plants under attack by L. minutus typically turn a characteristic blue-green color, have few leaves and often have distorted growth.

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