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By Istvan Deak

Within the final seventy years of its lengthy and exceptional lifestyles, the Habsburg monarchy used to be affected by the forces of emerging nationalism. nonetheless, it preserved family peace and supplied the stipulations for social, monetary, and cultural growth in an unlimited region inhabited through 11 significant nationalities and virtually as many confessional teams. This research investigates the social beginning, schooling, education, code of honor, way of life, and political position of the Habsburg officials. at the same time conservative and liberal, the officer corps, initially composed regularly of aristocrats, willingly coopted millions of commoners--among them a unprecedented variety of Jews. Even in the course of international warfare I, the military and its officials persisted, surviving the dissolution of the country in October 1918, if merely via a couple of days. the top of the multinational Habsburg military additionally marked the tip of confessional and ethnic tolerance in important and East significant Europe.

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Additional resources for Beyond Nationalism: A Social and Political History of the Habsburg Officer Corps, 1848-1918

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Also recorded were the officers' confessional and ethnic breakdown—the latter only between 1897 and 1911—the numbers and proportion of each such group in the different arms of service, the number and nature of promotions, and the number of those who had left service, along with the reasons for their departure. Unfortunately, not every one of these statistical analyses was provided every year, and nowhere, in the yearbooks themselves or in the archives, does there seem to be a written explanation of the methods used in compiling the statistics.

Despite their evident shortcomings, they are an inestimable historical source of which I have attempted to make good use. The method I chose for drawing a collective portrait of the officers was to concentrate on two cohorts, those who were career lieutenants in 1870 and those who held this rank in 1900. 880, the careers of the two groups embrace virtually the entire period under investigation here. A random selection was made of every tenth lieutenant in each group, as culled from the rank lists of officers contained in the Militarschematismen for the years 1871 and 1901.

Yet there was also a third battalion, composed mainly of young soldiers, which was generally stationed in the regiment's own recruiting area. In addition, each infantry regiment had had the obligation to surrender two companies of select tall soldiers to the special Grenadier battalions, made up of men from several regiments. The Grenadiere rarely served in the same place as the first, second, or third battalions of their own regiments. * Small wonder, then, that when the war was finally over and the Austrian military historians had to account for the events, they invariably found some units, no matter how small, from each regiment which had fought for and not against the emperor.

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