By Flemming Pociot (auth.), Bernhelm Booß-Bavnbek, Beate Klösgen, Jesper Larsen, Flemming Pociot, Erik Renström (eds.)
The insulin secreting β-cell is likely one of the such a lot really good telephone varieties with various and multi-functional parts (genes, gene items, organelles and metabolites) and a large number of regulatory techniques in line with inner and environmental indications. This booklet seems to be on the technological advances that make simultaneous detection of hundreds of thousands of organic variables attainable; at a considerable number of mathematical versions and numerical simulations that goal to provide an explanation for significant facets of the β-cell functionality; and on the problem to formulate a accomplished and strong version of the most networks of the underlying biochemical and actual procedures for diagnostic and healing use.
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Extra info for BetaSys: Systems Biology of Regulated Exocytosis in Pancreatic ß-Cells
A series of important papers have also fluorescently labelled insulin granule cargo protein insulin such as insulin amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) that is synthesized by the β-cell and stored and co-secreted with insulin. These studies have thoroughly investigated the relative contribution of kiss-and-run and full exocytosis and have pointed out that the exocytotic process is not an all-or-none process, but that regulation of the width of the fusion pore offers the flexibility to allow 2 Established Facts and Open Questions of Regulated Exocytosis in β-Cells 31 release of smaller granule constituents, like ATP, without release of the bulkier insulin molecule [10, 11, 74].
Se B. Booß-Bavnbek et al. 1007/978-1-4419-6956-9_2, C Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011 25 26 ATP ATP-ase cAMP CAPS CaV ClC-3 DPP-4 EM EPAC2 ER GIP GLP-1 GLUT GTP GTP-ase GWAS IAPP IP3 KATP channel MODY MSD munc NADPH NaV NSF PC PKA Rab protein Rab27a RRP Slac-2c/MYRIP SNAP-25 SNARE SNP(s) TCF7L2 TIRF(M) TNFalpha VAMP2 E. 1 Introduction Diabetes mellitus is the most common endocrine disorder and incidence rates are increasing worldwide, with an expected doubling in deaths related to diabetes between 2005 and 2030 .
Vaxillaire M, Froguel P (2008) Monogenic diabetes in the young, pharmacogenetics and relevance to multifactorial forms of type 2 diabetes. Endocr Rev 29:254–264 11. Langerhans P (1869) Beitrag zur mikroskopischen Anatomie der Bauchspeicheldrüse. Gustav Lange, Berlin 12. Edlund H (2002) Pancreatic organogenesis – developmental mechanisms and implications for therapy. Nat Rev Genet 3:524–532 13. Barrett JC, Clayton DG, Concannon P, Akolkar B, Cooper JD, Erlich HA, Julier C, Morahan G, Nerup J, Nierras C, Plagnol V, Pociot F, Schuilenburg H, Smyth DJ, Stevens H, Todd JA, Walker NM, Rich SS (2009) Genome-wide association study and meta-analysis find that over 40 loci affect risk of type 1 diabetes.