By Virginia T McLemore; Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration (U.S.)
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Extra resources for Basics of metal mining influenced water
Thus, the bacteria accelerated AD production. 5) can prevent bacterially mediated production of Fe(III) from accelerating sulfide oxidation, thus reducing the rate of acid production. Fe(III) (appendix, Equations 10d and 16) is a powerful oxidizing agent for most metal sulfides (Mills 1998a, b). As long as Fe(III) is present, pyrite will continue to oxidize, even in the absence of oxygen (Evangelou 1995; Evangelou and Zhang 1995). 5 can oxidize Fe(II) to Fe(III) and can form AD in some environments (appendix, Equations 16 and 17; Evangelou 1995).
Hot water is injected into nahcolite-bearing formations to dissolve nahcolite from the host rocks, and the resulting NaHCO3-enriched solution is pumped to the surface for cooling and recovery of the solid sodium bicarbonate. Voids created by the nahcolite dissolution can cause strata above the solution-mined formation to collapse, so cavity diameter and height are controlled to prevent contamination of freshwater aquifers above the mined zones and to control surface subsidence. EXTRACTIVE METALLURGY Mechanical and chemical processes are used to extract metals from ores.
Although underground water interacts with geologic materials, including mineral deposits, groundwater may pick up acidity and metals through natural processes and can then reenter surface water as naturally impacted waters through springs or gaining streams, or as MIW if the mineral deposit has been mined. SOLUTIONS AND MINERAL SOLUBILITY Fundamental concepts of mineralogy and chemistry are useful in order to understand the effects that mining activities can have on drainage quality, although it is beyond the scope of this handbook to provide details on solution and mineral chemistry.