By Barbara Schmiedtová
The examine endeavors a close and systematic type of linguistic simultaneity expressions. extra, it goals at a good defined survey of ways simultaneity is expressed via local audio system of their personal language. at the foundation of actual construction information the e-book solutions the questions of ways local audio system convey temporal simultaneity ordinarily, and the way rookies at varied degrees of skillability care for this example below experimental attempt stipulations. additionally, the result of this learn shed new gentle on our figuring out of element generally, and on its acquisition via grownup beginners.
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Extra resources for At The Same Time: The Expression Of Simultaneity In Learner Varieties (Studies on Language Acquisition)
This example can only mean that Mary first finished closing the window and then Peter came into the room. 8). So far, I have discussed cases of temporal simultaneity expressed by means of verbal inflection. Two ways were considered: aspectual opposition contrasting two different aspects and aspectual juxtaposition adjoining two imperfectives. The juxtaposition of two perfectives can normally not be used for marking simultaneity because its default interpretation is sequential. Note that the employment of aspectual marking is sufficient for expressing simultaneity.
Czech has developed a systematic method for aspect marking: it is marked by morphological devices on the verb root or stem. These devices are grammaticalized and in many cases still productive. The difficulty seems to be that aspect is not a pure grammatical category, and as we will see later, it is not easy to distinguish between morphological marking and word formation means (cf. perfectivization via prefixation). It is traditionally assumed that a Czech verb, aside from a few exceptions, exists in two forms (Karlík et al.
7). 7) Marie zavírala (Past, Imperf) okno, Petr vcházel (Past, Imperf) do pokoje. ’ One final remark should address the option of juxtaposing two perfective verbs. 8) Marie zavfiela (Past, Perf) okno, Petr ve‰el (Past, Perf) do pokoje. 8) expresses a temporal sequence. g. 9) Marie zavfiela (Past, Perf) okno, v tom momentû ve‰el (Past, Perf) Petr do pokoje. 8). This example can only mean that Mary first finished closing the window and then Peter came into the room. 8). So far, I have discussed cases of temporal simultaneity expressed by means of verbal inflection.