By Abito Ito; Kokusai Kyōiku Jōhō Sentā
Read or Download Aspects of Japanese culture and society : an anthropologist's view / [written and prepared by Ito Abito] PDF
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Extra info for Aspects of Japanese culture and society : an anthropologist's view / [written and prepared by Ito Abito]
Pupils who have reached a certain level of attainment are given a diploma and permitted to use one Chinese character from the master's artistic name in his or her own artistic name. The diplomas are divided into a large number of ranks, the level of the position and diploma given to the pupil being determined by artistic attainment. The pupil then establishes his or her own studio and solicits pupils in turn; this serves to spread the influence of the school as a whole. In other words, there is a centralized, hierarchical structure - which also spreads to many different areas -- with the iemoto at its center and peak and, below him or her, any number of descending grades down to the beginner pupil.
They also use wrappings, pamphlets, and the like to present their goods in ways that give prominence to these added values. 32 "By Appointment" Another strategy aimed at giving the quality of goods a special imprimatur is the use of the label "by appointment" (goyôtashi). The firm seeks to boost the reputation of its goods by vaunting the fact that it supplies them to customers with special authority or trust. " Before the war and even today, firms supplying special commodities for the Imperial Household have considered this a great honor and have spared no effort to maintain the relationship.
In order to promote commerce within their territories, the various domains encouraged merchants and artisans to gather around the castle. Residential areas for members of the samurai class and areas where the merchants and artisans lived and worked were kept separate, and Buddhist temples and Shinto shrines tended to stand round about the periphery. In many cases, such divisions still persist in the form of modern commercial and residential areas. Another feature of the traditional town was that it was divided into a large number of small localities know as chônai, which were in the nature of autonomous local communities.