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In other words, when the gas exit is above the TDH the rate of solids loss is constant and therefore it is common to design the freeboard height to be equal to TDH. Other types of fluidization Spouted beds A spouted bed requires a cylindrical container with an inverted conical base and a vertical pipe entering at the apex of the cone. 19. Particles are carried at high velocity upwards in the central jet in a dilute phase and at the bed surface the particles form a kind of fountain and rain down onto the clearly defined surface.

Fluidized bed behaviour at high gas velocities Slugging As the superficial gas velocity increases, the nature of the bubbles changes. e. those with a bed depth to diameter ratio greater than unity, and with fine particles, the bubbles grow to the size of the bed container and push plugs of material up the bed as they rise. 17 (b) 41 (c) Types of slugging behaviour. 17a. This is known as axial slugging and generally is to be avoided in food processing applications, although it does find application when a fluidized bed is used as a chemical reactor.

If the gas velocity is sufficient to fluidize the particles then the spouted bed becomes unstable; thus there is a maximum spoutable depth Hsm beyond which spouting behaviour breaks down and the bed becomes fluidized. Mathur (1971) suggests that ums is approximately equal to the minimum fluidizing velocity when the bed depth is close to the maximum spoutable depth. However, because in practical situations the bed depth would be considerably less than this maximum, gas velocities required for spouting are somewhat less than those required for fluidization.

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