By James A. Anderson
After electronic seems to be at the place the sphere of computation begun and the place it'd be headed, and gives predictions a couple of collaborative destiny dating among human cognition and mechanical computation.
summary: After electronic seems to be at the place the sphere of computation started and the place it'd be headed, and gives predictions a couple of collaborative destiny courting among human cognition and mechanical computation
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Additional info for After digital : computation as done by brains and machines
Digital ones) is that they are programmable. But even a simple balance can be programmed over a narrow range of tasks by the way weights are added to the pans, just like different input data determines the results from a program. Assume a set of standard weights, a balance, and an object to be weighed are at hand. One “software” strategy to determine the weight of the object is to test, one after another, all possible groupings of the standard weights to find the set that is closest to the weight of the object.
The Cray 1 was one of the first successful supercomputers, and the only new patents it contained described a novel method for cooling the off-the-shelf chips used in the circuit boards. The situation has only gotten worse with time. A recent Nature commentary pointed out, Current trends suggest that the next milestone in computing—an exaflop machine performing at 1018 flops —would consume hundreds of megawatts of power (equivalent to the output of a small nuclear plant) and turn virtually all of that energy into heat.
They are told what to do by programs: software. ”2 There was a brief introduction to digital computer hardware in Chapter 3; to make some assertions about digital computer software: • Perceived computer complexity is almost entirely due to software complexity. • Conceptually and economically, software is much more difficult and important to make than hardware. • Software tools are evolving in a direction more compatible with and sometimes inspired by human cognition. • As tools and programs become more congenial for human cognition, more and more people can use computers.