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Extra info for Advanced Nuclear Plant Options - to Cope w. Extl Events (IAEA TECDOC-1487)
It may be noted that provision of progressively increasing levels of defence in depth not only enhances the reliability of safety systems under postulated internal events, but also under a range of postulated external events. 4], four different categories of passive safety features have been proposed, as described below. Category A passive safety features are those, which do not require external signal inputs of “intelligence”, or external power sources or forces, and have neither any moving mechanical parts nor any moving working fluid.
Category A passive safety features are those, which do not require external signal inputs of “intelligence”, or external power sources or forces, and have neither any moving mechanical parts nor any moving working fluid. g. g. supports, restraints, anchors, shields). Category B passive safety features are those, which do not require external signal inputs of “intelligence”, or external power sources or forces, and have no moving mechanical parts. They do, however, have moving working fluid. Examples of safety features included in this category are: • Reactor shutdown/emergency cooling systems based on injection of borated water produced by the disturbance of a hydrostatic equilibrium between the pressure boundary and an external water reservoir; • Reactor emergency cooling systems based on air or water natural circulation in heat exchangers immersed in water reservoirs (inside containment) to which the decay heat is directly transferred; • Containment cooling systems based on natural circulation of air flowing around the containment walls, with intake and exhaust through a stack or in tubes covering the inner walls of silos of underground reactors; and • Fluidic gates between process systems, such as "surge lines" of PWRs.
Passive systems — some definitions Some of the most commonly accepted definitions relating to passive safety features were arrived at, on the basis of a consensus among several international experts, in a series of meetings organized by the IAEA. 4]. Inherent safety characteristic: Safety achieved by the elimination of a specified hazard by means of the choice of material and design concept. Passive component: A component, which does not need any external input to operate. Passive system: Either a system which is composed entirely of passive components and structures or a system which uses active components in a very limited way to initiate subsequent passive operation.