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Owing to the crystalline nature, side groups having photoinduced E-configuration align themselves parallel to existing E-forms to enhance the birefringence. ,76 who reported that large birefringence was induced by irradiation with linearly polarized light. Prolonged irradiation with 488-nm light with large exposure energies of more than several hundred joules per square centimeter resulted in a birefringence of which was quite thermally stable. , the thermal stability of the molecular ordering of the films was ascribed to the photoinduced cross-linking of the p-phenylenediacrylate units via a [2 + 2] cycloaddition.

70,71 One of the applications of polarized photochromism in polymer solids is polarization holography. Todorov and co-workers72,73 employed a film of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) doped with water-soluble azo dyes like methyl orange and methyl red for the formation of a holographic grating. They employed a PVA film incorporating the azobenzene dyes as a representative photoactive layer which they exposed to an Ar laser beam. It was observed that the film demonstrated dichroism during the laser irradiation as a result of the molecular reorientation of azo-dye molecules.

E. ter Meer, Ann. Chem. 181, 1 (1876). 6. W. Marckwald, Z. Phys. Chem. 30, 140 (1899). 7. O. A. Neumüller, Basis-Römmp, Franckhsche Verlagshandlung, Stuttgart (1977). 8. Y. Hirshberg, C. R. Acad. Sci, 231, 903 (1950). 9. R. Dessauer and J. P. Paris, in: Advances in Photochemistry (W. A. Noyes, G. S. Hammond, and J. N. ), Vol. 1, p. 275, Interscience, New York (1963). 10. G. Porter, Angew. Chem. 80, 882 (1968). 11. P. G. W. Norrish and G. Porter, Nature 174, 658 (1949). 12. G. Porter, Proc. Roy.

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