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Another twelve states have signed but not ratified the Charter (Azerbaijan, Cyprus, Czech Republic, France, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, Malta, Romania, Russia, former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, and Ukraine). 2 Issues in language revitalization 29 languages. Consider South Africa. The constitution names eleven official languages4 (Afrikaans, English, Ndebele, Xhosa, Zulu, Northern Sotho [or Sepedi], Sesotho, Setswana, Swati, Tshivenda, Xitsonga), but only two of these, Afrikaans and English, are used for official purposes.

Alternatively, there are cases where once-fluent speakers may find themselves in situations where they have not spoken their languages for many years. 8 As implied, levels of extinction and degrees of fluency (especially among semi-speakers) are of great relevance to language reclamation efforts. Disappearing languages will have fluent speakers of many ages who can be enlisted in the work of revitalization. For moribund or nearly extinct languages, this becomes increasingly less likely, and the importance of semi-speakers to the ultimate success of the process grows considerably.

4 Regional autonomy We treat regional autonomy here as a national level variable, although it is relevant both as a macro- and a micro-issue, and can be determined at multiple levels, ranging from extra-nationally to locally. Degree of regional autonomy within a country is a function of historical processes, geography, core political principles, and economic factors, though in exceptional cases it may be determined by extra-national factors. A prime example is the 8 Specifically, representatives shall be taken from the departments of Education; of the Interior; of Health and Human Services; of Agriculture; of Justice; of Labor; and ‘‘such other executive branch departments, agencies, or offices as the Co-Chairs of the Working Group may designate’’ (Bush 2004).

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