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By Albert C. Baugh

A heritage of the English Language explores the linguistic and cultural improvement of English from the Roman conquest of britain to the current day to supply a complete assessment of the several points of its background. This best-selling vintage textbook has been revised and up to date and encourages the reader to enhance either an knowing of present-day English and an enlightened perspective towards the problems affecting the language this present day. New gains of the 6th variation comprise: an extra bankruptcy titled 'English within the Twenty-first Century', which examines the way forward for English and different worldwide languages and contains an overview of chinese language as an international language an in-depth therapy of phonological adjustments, comparable to the situation of the nice Vowel Shift as a bridge among heart English and Renaissance English additional assurance of corpus linguistics, specially for Renaissance English clean sections on accessory and sign up a brand new survey of the new debate among "creolists" and "neo-Anglicists" at the origins of African American Vernacular English. Balanced and wide-ranging, this textbook is a must-read for any scholar learning the background of the English language

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Sample text

23. Italic. The Italic branch has its center in Italy, and to most people Italy in ancient times suggests Rome and the language of Rome, Latin. But the predominant position occupied by Latin in the historical period should not make us forget that Latin was only one of a number of languages once found in this area. The geographical situation and agreeable climate of The Indo-European family of languages 25 the peninsula seem frequently and at an early date to have invited settlement, and the later population represents a remarkably diverse culture.

They accordingly fall into eleven principal groups: Indian, Iranian, Armenian, Hellenic, Albanian, Italic, Balto-Slavic, Germanic, Celtic, Hittite, and Tocharian. 4 18. Indian. The oldest literary texts preserved in any Indo-European language are the Vedas or sacred books of India. These fall into four groups, the earliest of which, the Rig-veda, is a 3 Cf. the change of s to z (which became r medially in West Germanic) in the form of cēosan— cēas—curon—coren noted in § 46. Shevoroshkin, “Nostratic,” Annual Review of Anthropology, 17 (1988), 309–29.

In like manner where one wrote pugna (fight), urbs (city), os (mouth), the popular, spoken word was battualia (Fr. bataille), villa (Fr. ville), bucca (Fr. bouche). So verberare=battuere (Fr. battre), osculari=basiare (Fr. baiser), ignis=focus (Fr. feu), ludus=jocus (Fr. jeu). It was naturally the Vulgar Latin of the marketplace and camp that was carried into the different Roman provinces. That this Vulgar Latin developed differently in the different parts of Europe in which it was introduced is explained by a number of factors.

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