Download A History Of Modern Germany 1800-2000 by Martin Kitchen PDF

By Martin Kitchen

This attractive textbook presents a huge survey of recent German heritage from 1800-2000, and situates Germany’s fragmented previous inside its complete context. Kitchen:Provides readers an extended view of German historical past, letting them see continuities and adjustments Covers the unification of Germany, the German Empire, the Weimar Republic, the 3rd Reich, the Federal Republic, the cave in of Communism, and the re-unification Examines cultural background in addition to political and financial historical past comprises assurance of neighborhood background instead of concentrating on the dominant function of Prussia

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Support from the other German states was minimal. Some adventurers, like the Prussian Major Schill, joined in the fray. Frederick William III closed his ears to entreaties from the military reformers demanding he declare war on France. There was a poorly organized peasants’ revolt in Westphalia but most Germans remained passive bystanders. Napoleon crossed the Danube at night, exploited the division between the two Austrian armies and confronted the Archduke Charles’ army at Wagram on June 5. Charles fought well and the first day was indecisive, but on the second Napoleon’s brilliant use of artillery resulted in a crushing defeat.

Many areas, such as Saxony and the smaller north and central German states, were virtually unaffected by reform. In Westphalia and Berg the reforms remained largely on paper while the French occupiers squeezed all they could from their subjects. The Prussian reform movement was inspired by the desire to bridge the gap between the state and society, and to involve the citizens directly or indirectly in the affairs of state. Southern German étatisme, although determined to overcome the outmoded rights of the estates and to modernize society, was deeply suspicious of the dangerous potential of popular sovereignty.

Conflict between the two was thus almost inevitable. The practical military results of the reforms did not meet the reformers’ expectations. Admittedly, Prussia was able to field an army of over a quarter of a million men, it was better trained, its staff work greatly improved, and some units, particularly in the Landwehr, were fired by an idealistic and patriotic spirit. On the other hand such enthusiasm was by no means general; there were large numbers of desertions and there was fierce resistance by the regular officer corps to universal military service.

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