Download A History of English: Volume I: From Proto-Indo-European to by Donald Ringe PDF

By Donald Ringe

This ebook is the 1st for the reason that 1897 to explain the earliest reconstructable phases of the prehistory of English. It outlines the grammar of Proto-Indo-European, considers the adjustments through which one dialect of that prehistoric language constructed into Proto-Germanic, and offers a close account of the grammar of Proto-Germanic. the 1st quantity in Don Ringe's A Linguistic heritage of English might be of crucial curiosity to all students and scholars of comparative Indo-European and Germanic linguistics, the heritage of English, and old linguists. the subsequent quantity will reflect on the advance of Proto-Germanic into previous English. next volumes will describe the attested background of English from the outdated English interval to the current.

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Extra resources for A History of English: Volume I: From Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Germanic (A Linguistic History of English)

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Sg. *po¯´ds, acc. sg. *po´dm, ˚ gen. sg. *pede´s, etc. ‘foot’, should we conclude that the original inXection was acrostatic *po´d- $ *pe´d- and that the noun has been transferred into the alternating type without adjustment of the root-ablaut, or is it likelier that an inconvenient oblique stem *pd-’ was replaced by *ped-’ (a process for which probable parallels can be cited)?

Monosyllables exhibited two types of accent and ablaut alternations. The easier type to reconstruct, because it has survived robustly in Indo-Iranian and Greek (and even become productive in the latter language), exhibited alternating accent: on the root in the direct cases, but on the endings in the oblique cases. ) *k´ e¯´r $ *k´ rd-’ ‘heart’. ˚ ˚ But there was also a type which had the accent on the root in all forms, but exhibited diVerent ablaut grades in the direct and oblique cases; this ‘acrostatic’ type was recognized only in the 1960s, because it was already being eliminated by morphological change in PIE and has to be reconstructed from relics in the daughters (cf.

JasanoV 1988b: 71 n. 3) The similarity between these endings and those of the (secondary) mediopassive is obvious, though specialists are not agreed on what inferences should be drawn from that fact. Once again, the dual endings are not reconstructable because Greek and Indo-Iranian disagree. 4 (ii) ); present and aorist mediopassive participles ended in a suYx *-mh1no´-. Not surprisingly, the perfect participle exhibited a diVerent suYx *-wos- $ *-us-. An inWnitive suYx *-dhyo¯y or *-dhyoey, likewise aYxed to aspect-stems, is reconstructable, but not much is known about its distribution, since it survives only in the Indo-Iranian subfamily and in Umbrian (see Rix 1976b); possibly it was suYxed only to present stems.

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