By Vít Bubeník
This monograph goals to shut the space in our wisdom of the character and velocity of grammatical switch in the course of the formative interval of todays Indo-Aryan languages. in the course of the 6th-12th c. the slow erosion of the substitute morphology of outdated Indo-Aryan resulted finally within the remodelling of its syntax towards the recent Indo-Aryan analytic type.
This research concentrates at the emergence and improvement of the ergative building when it comes to the passive-to-ergative reanalysis and the co-existence of the ergative building with the previous and new analytic passive structures. particular consciousness is paid to the actuation challenge obvious because the tug of battle among conservative and eliminative forces in the course of their improvement. different chapters take care of the evolution of grammatical and lexical point, causativization, modality, absolute buildings and subordination.
This research relies on a wealth of latest info gleaned from unique poetic works in Apabhraṃśa (by Svayaṃbhādeva, Puṣpadanta, Haribhadra, Somaprabha et al.). It comprises sections facing descriptive innovations of Medieval Indian grammarians (esp. Hemacandra). all of the Sanskrit, Prakrit and Apabhraṃśa examples are regularly parsed and translated.
The opus is forged within the theoretical framework of practical Grammar of the Prague and Amsterdam faculties. it may be of specific curiosity to students and scholars of Indo-Aryan and basic ancient linguistics, specifically these attracted to the problems of morphosyntactic swap and typology of their sociohistorical surroundings.
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His advances to the South were stopped by Pulakeshin II (ca. 620). After Harsha's death his kingdom, a loose feudal conglomerate, disintegrated into a number of small states; ca. D. the city of Kanauj was ruled by Yasovarman whose main deed, the conquest of Upper Bengal and the slaying of its king, was immortalized by Vakpati in his Prakrit epos Gaudavaho (cf. 2). During the subsequent centuries (8 - 10th) the overlordship of Kanauj was disputed by three powers: the Rashtrakutas (Western Dekkan), the Pratiharas (Rajasthan), and the Palas in Eastern India.
This stratification of literature in Medieval India is in general typical of that found in Medieval societies, but India furnishes an extreme case of it. The closest European parallel is perhaps available in Byzantium whose authors could avail themselves of one of the three varieties for their creations: the Atticizing Hochsprache imitating classics of the 5th/4th c , the 'official' Byzantine koine continuing Hellenistic koine, or the 'vernacular' koine approximating the spoken language. There are further interesting details making it worthwhile to pursue this parallel.
D. and much of its military activity was directed towards the conquest of the imperial city Kanauj. The Pratiharas are claimed to be descended from the Gurjara people of Rajasthan. Their name (etymologically "door-keepers") may be taken as indicative of their 'low-caste' and ultimately foreign origin. By the end of the 8th c. the Pratiharas ruled over a large part of Rajasthan, Ujjain and the city of Kanauj. 14 A HISTORICAL SYNTAX OF LATE MIDDLE INDO-ARYAN At the beginning of the 8th c. the earliest encounter of the westernmost part of India with ethnic Arabs took place.