By Frederick S. And Frederick H. Bailey Woods

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**Additional info for A Course in Mathematics Volume II **

**Example text**

The maxi- fonn of the density matrix is that of the Boltzmann mum-entropy distribution is the broadest one com- distribution with finite temperature, is found only by patible with the given information; it assigns positive using a better approximatlon which takes into account weight to every possibility that is not ruled out by the quantum nature of the surroundings. It is of the greatest importance to recognize that in the initial data. This method of inference is extended in the following all of this semiclassical theory It is possible to mamtain sections (numbered consecutively from those of I), to the view that the system is at all times in some definite the density-matrix fonnalism, which makes possible the but unknown pure state, which lhanges belause of treatment of time-dependent phenomena.

Etc. Then if we know only the average energy (E), the maximum-entropy probabilities of the levels 1';, are gIven by a special case of (2-10), which we recogmze as the Boltzmann d,stnbution. This observation really completes our denvation "R. A F,sher. Pro< Cambndge Phil Soc. 22. 700 (1925J L. Doob. Trans Am. Math. Soc 39, 4tO (1936). "J 10 E. T. ,···), iW S=--=-kr: p,lnp .. =kT-lnZ. " The "forces" fJ. , and Eqs. ). In the above relations we have assumed the number of molecules of each type to be fixed.

5-4) In a measurement of temperature, we place the thermometer in thermal contact with the system 0', of interest. We are now uncertam not only of the state of the system 0', but also of the state of the thermometer 0'" and so in making inferences, we must find the maximum-entropy probability distribution of the total system 1: = 0',+0'" subject to the available information. A st"te of X is defined by specifying simultaneously a stale, of 11, and a state j of 0', to which we assign a probability p".